Prevention Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers

Prevention Guidelines for Infants and Toddlers

Here are the screening tests and immunizations for infants from birth to age 2. Although you and your health care provider may decide that a different schedule is best for your baby, this plan can guide your discussion.

Screening

Who needs it

How often

APGAR (a test to determine how well an infant tolerated the birthing process and is adapting to his or her new environment)

All newborns

One minute and five minutes after birth

Congenital hypothyroidism

All newborns

Before leaving hospital or 2 to 4 days of age 

Hearing loss

All newborns

Before leaving hospital or at 1 month

Elevated lead levels

All year-old infants* and children age 2 who are at average or increased risk

Yearly

Iron-deficiency anemia

All infants between 6 and 12 months* and children ages 1 to 5 years who are at average or increased risk

Yearly

Newborn screenings (some states require 29 or more tests for infections and disorders)

All newborns

Before leaving hospital

Phenylketonuria

All newborns

Before leaving hospital

Prevention of dental caries

Children ages 6 months to 5 years whose primary water source is deficient in fluoride

At routine exams; first dental visit recommended at 1 year

Sickle cell disease

Newborns

Birth to 2 months

Visual impairments

Children younger than 5 years

At well-child/routine exams

Immunization

Who needs it

How often

Hepatitis B vaccine (monovalent)

All infants

At birth, between 1 and 2 months, and a final dose at 6 to 18 months

Diphtheria

All infants

At 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and a booster at 4 to 6 years 

Tetanus toxoids

All infants

At 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and a booster at 4 to 6 years 

Acellular pertussis

All infants

At 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, 15 to 18 months, and a booster at 4 to 6 years 

Haemophilus influenzae type b conjugate

All infants

At 2 months and 4 months; additional doses may be required, based on which vaccine your doctor uses 

Inactivated poliovirus

All infants

At 2 months, 4 months, 6 to 18 months (and a booster at 4 to 6 years)

Pneumococcal (conjugate)

All infants

At 2 months, 4 months, 6 months, and at 12 to 15 months

Measles, mumps, rubella (MMR)

All infants

First dose between 12 and 15 months (and the second dose at 4 to 6 years, or before starting kindergarten)

Chickenpox (varicella)

Those infants who have not contracted chickenpox

Between 12 and 15 months (and the second dose at 4 to 6 years)

Flu (seasonal); trivalent inactivated influenza

All infants

At 6 months, and then annually when the flu vaccine becomes available in the community; the first year your child gets this vaccine two doses are required up until 8 years of age 

Hepatitis A

All infants

At ages 12 to 23 months, with a second dose at least six months after the first dose

Rotavirus

All infants

At 2 months, 4 months, and 6 months (must be started before 14 weeks, 6 days of age)

*Screening guidelines from the American Academy of Pediatrics

All other screening guidelines from the U.S. Preventive Services Task Force

Immunization schedule from the CDC

 
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